Rules of Teaching: Digest for Applying a Learners’ View (ALV) of Learning

A Learners’ View (ALV) Is Of Choices On The Shortest And Fastest Path To Learning, The Oxygen Of Social Life.

Teaching combines science (the discipline of procedures) and technology (the discipline of capability) with content to form each lesson.

Main Page: Classic Education: A Learners’ View (ALV) of Choices during Teaching and Learning

Theme: Choices with the science of teaching-learning as social processes that likely accelerate, increase, and deepen (AID) learning.

In a Nutshell

 Learning occurs when instruction matches choices of learners.

Learners choose how they learn lessons, that is how they adopt, adapt, and adjust their vocabulary and logic to solve problems during lessons teachers instruct. Teachers choose when, where, and how to instruct lessons learners will likely learn.

About this Digest

A Learners’ View (ALV) is to Learning as Do-Re-Mi is to Music.

This digest is divided into two parts. A section named Rules of Teaching (RT) describes choices educators have been making with a learners’ view (ALV). When someone learns from a teacher, the teacher has used ALV. When teachers use ALV on purpose, 8 or more out of each 10 students learn those lessons. A background section summarizes the facts represented by the term a learners’ view and ALV.  Together, these sections describe choices educators make that result in or close to all students learning all lessons.

Using this Digest

Make this digest your own handy reference. You may start at the beginning of the first section and read to the end of the second section, or you may pick and choose where to start, what to read, and then what to use. Use this digest as a place to store more tips you have found useful.

Rules of Teaching (RT) with a Learners’ View (ALV)

If learning is to be, Teachers use ALV (a Learners’ View of Learning).

THESE RULES DESCRIBE PATTERNS teachers use during lessons that learners learn. Read ALV Patterns in Lessons (APL) 1.0 Teachers Use that Learners Learn

Rule 1. Teachers Gamble with Student Assets. Instructing a lesson is a calculable risk of learners loosing time, energy, and other non-renewable assets while trying to learn that lesson. This risk is endemic to education. Read Teachers as Risk Managers

Rule 2. Use Rules of Learning. Teachers apply principles (rules) of learning that most likely result in learners learning lessons taught. These principles leave for others to describe the art of teaching. Read Principles of Learning

Rule 3. Learners Rule Learning. Learners, not teachers, set the rules (principles) for learning from teaching. Learners choose when and how to learn from lessons. Teachers choose what and how to instruct. In these ways teachers manage learning through lessons. Teachers can control lessons to make learning more likely, but not control learning those lessons. Read Meet Ima Learner, a Member of Your Class

Rule 4: Learning Confirms Teaching. You know when students learn that you used rules of learning. Read A Completed Teacher (ACT): A Learners’ View (ALV) of Teaching-Learning

Rule 5: Two Dots Learning. Learning consists of connecting two dots. Each dot exists as vocabulary, sometimes called content, repertoire, skills, or techniques, and logic. Read Two Dots Learning (TDL)

Rule 6. Learning as Problem Solving. Learning occurs one problem solution at a time. Read Learning as Solving Five (5) Generic Problems

Rule 7. One Step Learning. Learning occurs in one step. All other activity is trial-and-errors to find the relevant vocabulary (words, motions, voice tone, and other physical sensations) and logic to connect those dots, that is to learn that lesson. Read One Step Learning

Rule 8. Lesson. A lesson shows learners choices to make to solve a problem. Conventional 50 minute class period lessons are ways educators refer to chains of a learners’ view of lessons. Read Lesson: Vocabulary and Relationships

Rule 9. Triple Helix of Learning. Lessons fuse elements that sustain learning from three supply chains. Read Lesson Weaves Three Threads into a Triple-Helix of Learning

Rule 10. Lesson Solves One Problem. Each lesson is a way to connect two dots, that is to solve one problem by using ways learners have already learned in other lessons. Read Lesson as Problem Solving

Rule 11. Lessons in Seconds. Efficient and effective lessons occur in seconds. The longer the lesson, the less likely that learning will occur. Read 20 Second Lesson

Rule 12. Sustenance of Learning. Supporting sights, sounds, and other sensations during a lesson show learners how to solve the problem (learn) the lesson. Learners will likely first identify concrete, easy, known, simple, and specific sensations (CEKSS, first half of each Principle of Learning, pronounced seeks). Also called cues, redundant cues, and stimuli. Teachers change voice tone and volume, draw underlines, say-and-show, etc. to feed (to attempt to nurture) learning during lessons. A hierarchy exists of senses to which learners will likely attend. Read Principles of Learning

Rule 13. Conditional Permission to Teach. Teachers must gain permission from students to teach each lesson. Yes, really. Experimental scientists call such permission “attention,” the beginning of the learning process. Learners choose if and how they will learn by selecting to what they attend. A hierarchy exists of senses to which learners will likely attend. Read Conditional Permission to Teach

Rule 14. Rationed Learning. Teachers ration learning when they do not offer 1.0 lessons (any lesson that does not result in all students learning everything in that lesson). Read Rationed Learning: …’Yes, but … ‘ Report

Rule 15. Organized Supply Chains. Chains consist of sources of lesson plans, instruction, and analyzed content, each with their own independent legacy of science, technology, and operational efficiency.

Rule 16: Costs and Benefits. Offer lessons that yield fewer costs and more benefits to learners than to teachers.

Rule 17: Records. Calculate (at least estimate) and record daily the percent of learners who learned each lesson and the costs and benefits to them in time, their supplies, and school expenditures (including your salary).


Teach from a learners’ view of learning.

  1. First, choose whether failure of learners to learn your lesson is an issue of vocabulary or of relationships among vocabulary required to solve the problem of your lesson.
  2. ALV is not a version of teaching-as-usual, although by chance you probably use active ingredients of learning in ALV whenever someone has learned your lessons.
  3. A lesson, at its core, consist of showing or telling learners choices of vocabulary and relationships among vocabulary that solve a problem.
  4. Create, adopt, or adapt from state and other standardized examinations a master list of vocabulary that learners will use to score 1.0 on course and third party examinations.
  5. Simplify and extrapolate vocabulary instead of complicating and elaborating lessons.
  6. Look for opportunities to AID learning during each lesson by watching and listening (reading) social patterns learners use while learning.
  7. Calculate the number of seconds of classroom instruction clock-time you have on average for learners to learn each lesson during your school year. This is the technical amount of time your school allots you to instruct lessons in ways that you can earn 1.0 Teacher rating.
  8. Plan for your lessons not to exceed that average time.
  9. Educators, scholars, and others recognize practices, sources and elements of ALV in professional literature and discussions as well as in general conversations. They may use this background to assess the merits of educators and education policies and practices.
  10. Bookmark this page for easy reference as you try to move closer to that 1.0 Teacher rating of your dreams.


THAT EDUCATION EXISTS is a matter of scholarship and historical convention. That learning occurs during teaching is a matter of science. 

This text uses common words to refer to scientific descriptions of quantifiable facts of teaching that result in learners learning lessons. These descriptions rely on mathematics to identify their validity and reliability. These facts feature more precision and accuracy than educators use in daily conversations. If Rules of Teaching had been written in conversational tone and style, it would appear something like this: Rules of Teaching describes boiled down social processes, so you may know, understand, and use ways people learn from teaching. However, to know and to understand are categories of generalizations. Each set has meanings lacking accuracy and precision that teachers can use reliably to accelerate, increase, and deepen (AID) learning promptly. Educators raised in conversations may, by choice, include some scientific facts to prepare lessons. Changes in learning by their students will likely remain limited, if apparent, when these educators have not set aside their imprecise use of words. Rules of Teaching identifies vocabulary that describes patterns of choices for teaching lessons likely to AID learning.

The Great Social Commission for Education


SOCIETY HAS GIVEN THE SOCIAL INSTITUTION OF EDUCATION THE GREAT COMMISSION to describe what the most accomplished people have done and to convey it to those who haven’t accomplished as much yet. A learners’ view (ALV), a property of education, stands for social processes people use while learning to make choices the most accomplished people have made  in the past, and currently make. No other social institution gives priority to this part of society. This priority addresses the order, processes, and goals of society, an organized interrelated aggregate of people. Members of society do not necessarily recognize on their own the organization or interrelationships beyond their daily lives. Educators carry out this commission, so people can accomplish more than without instruction, including what exists beyond their daily lives. By doing so, society continues to exist and to adapt to changing circumstances in which it exists. Through education, people have increasing numbers of options from which they may make choices during their daily lives.


TEACHING AND LEARNING are constantly present in society. They give us social life. They brighten each day and soften harsh experiences even when we don’t recognize their presence.

Let us take you through a pinhole in social life at the point where teaching and learning meet. Through this pinhole, we enter into a learners’ view of learning, teaching, lessons, and society. Learning from teaching is easiest to identify when people change their social patterns of interacting to match those that benefit learners by solving social problems.

For convenience and simplicity, we identify teaching and learning as social processes, a learners’ view (ALV) of rules of efficient teaching (RET), sometimes shortened to RT, or rules.

Strategic Responsibility of Educators

To the extent that educators discharge their duty to accelerate, increase, and deepen (AID) learning, they answer the  question, What part does teaching-learning play in the distribution of life-chances of people? Read Strategic Responsibility of Educators

Strategic Question a Learners’ View (ALV) Addresses

A Learners’ View (ALV), as a child of the social institution of education, holds that teaching-learning improves participation of learners in society. By implication, teaching improves life-chances of learners. Thus, improvement in life-chances of learners validates lessons taught. Read Strategic Question a Learners’ View (ALV) Addresses


A learners’ view and RT contribute in measurable ways to preventing three endemic social problems.

  1. The unequal distribution of learning from teaching that results in rationed learning.
  2. This distribution appears to ration life chances of people in and out of schools in ways that assigns them to social-economic classes, and limits their ability to compete in a global economy as citizens of the world.
  3. A risk management system that has reduced this inequality does not exist in schools for use by educators. Instead, educators assign risks of failure to learn to students, their communities, etc. in ways consistent with a professional, rather than a learners’, view of schools.


Three purposes exist for presenting Rules of Teaching. RT introduces a learners’ view of ways:

  1. To change the distribution of learning in schools so that all students learn all lessons all of the time.
  2. To describe how teachers have and others can use experimental behavioral and social science research findings to increase the likelihood that all learners will learn all lessons.
  3. To describe a learners’ view (ALV) of the essential features of choices people make while learning. Educators may use ALV as a system to manage and reduce risks of students failing to learn from lessons.


The word rules represents patterns of choices learners will likely while learning. Learners make choices independent of the content, style, type, or location of lessons.

Efficient teaching occurs when instruction of lessons matches choices learners make while learning those lessons. Bards, balladeers, writers, artists and performers have used these rules to complete their tasks.  No one knows when teaching and learning through predictable choices (rules) began.

Social Processes

Education, a learners’ view (ALV), choices, teaching, and learning exist as social processes. The smallest unit to analyze them is a dyad, that is an agreement (exchange, transaction) between two people. Those words represent different aspects of what people can see, hear, and in other ways sense changes in patterns of interaction among people. Such differences arguably serve as the basis for changes in society. Social processes range from behavior patterns to social values that maintain society.


This digest provides mostly topic sentences from the unabridged Classic Education: A Learners’ View (ALV) of Choices during Teaching and Learning. Note that ALV uses a plural possessive part of speech to refer to common elements across scientific research reports.

The name Classic Education indicates the timelessness of a learners’ view. To the extent that people learn, they have used a learners’ view yesterday, today, and will likely use it tomorrow.

Classic Education describes what 1.0 teachers and those trying to earn that rating do routinely while teaching. Teachers who earn that rating instruct learners in ways so that all learners learn all of those lessons.

In this digest, you will read descriptions of choices learners make while they learn. You may use these choices in lessons as do others to accelerate, increase, and deepen (AID) learning. Teachers who match these choices in lessons AID learning promptly and sometimes dramatically.

Who Needs ALV and RT?

You may need ALV and RT if you answer No to any of these questions:

  • Can you describe to anyone in one sentence how people learn, that is, what step they take first, second, etc.?
  • Can you say which choices learners will likely make to learn your lesson while you are teaching that lesson?
  • Do all learners learn all of your lessons and also meet or exceed state standards for your courses?

Sources: Commonalities 

ALV and these rules are grounded in common results reported in experimental behavioral and social science research reports. Scientists have continuously refined these results in laboratories and classrooms during almost 125 years. An implicit element of these studies is that learners make choices teachers may observe, manage, and measure, but not control, while learners learn. Teaching and learning is easiest to identify with choices.

By stating these commonalties as rules of choices, they summarize the craft of teaching in ways that teachers may manage intentionally and routinely, and that non-classroom educators may support directly. Observers can also identify choices made by teachers and learners whether teaching occurs as classic education or in efforts with other names currently or formerly fashionable.


Prerequisites for getting the most out of this digest are to accept five possibilities.

  • One, that a learners’ view of teaching and learning exists as observable, measurable social processes, not as mental, cognitive, or some other assumed process.
  • Two, that behavioral and social scientists have documented the existence of what we call active ingredients of learning (AIL). They form an infrastructure of learning that exists independent of content and instruction of lessons. Use of these ingredients increases the likelihood of learners learning lessons in ways that you can observe, manage, and measure while teaching.
  • Three, that people can managing learning to occur as measureable possibilities (probabilities, likelihoods, gambles).
  • Four, the de facto standard of teaching-learning: It is technically possible (ways described and validated by scientists and educators) for all students to learn all lessons.
  • Five, that it is educators’ choices whether or not to offer instruction in ways that all students learn all lessons.

A Learners’ View (ALV) of Learning

The name A Learners’ View refers to a proof-of-concept (POC) prototype of steps people take while learning from teaching. This POC results from an early effort to identify and assemble from experimental behavioral and social science research reports the simplest description of these steps. When one or more of these descriptions is left out of ALV, learners likely do not learn lessons teachers instruct.

First Glance

The first thing you realize from a learners’ view is that ALV describes a learners’ world in and out of schools. This world consists of making choices from among a muddle of spoken and other vocabulary and relationships among symbols, signs, movements, physical senses, as well as social norms and values.

Then you realize that teachers show and tell learners how to make choices in the middle of this muddle. This instruction occurs in lessons as do bakers manage flour, liquid, and baking soda to make bread. In this sense, ALV makes clear that teachers hold responsibility for what and when learners learn lessons.

How People Learn

People learn when they connect two dots. To make each connection they make choices from among active ingredients of learning. They make these choices through trial-and-errors that solve problems to their benefit. They learn

  1. in one step while choosing
  2. one of two options (the correct one to solve a problem or another option)
  3. at each of three stages (beginning, middle, and end of learning a lesson)
  4. at four levels or orders (sensory, problem solving, socially acceptable choices, that sustain society)
  5. that answer one or more of five questions, that is, they solve one or more of five problems (What is it? What is like it? What is not like it? What comes next? and What is missing?).

Learners use trial-and-errors through as many as 15 choice points to learn something, to solve each problem. The more trial-and-errors required in a lesson, the less likely it is that a learner will learn that lesson.

Teaching with ALV

From a learners’ view, here are two basic rules for AIDing learning in your classroom.

  1. You choose what, where, and when specific learning should occur.
  2. Each learner chooses if and how to learn from your choices and how your choices benefit him or her to do so.

At their core, teaching and learning are that simple!

Learning during Lessons

To learn during each lesson, learners try to answer three questions:

  1. What do I have to do?
  2. What do I get for doing it? and
  3. What will it cost (in time, effort, material goods) me to do it?


  1. 1.0 Teacher
  2. A Completed Teacher (ACT)
  3. ALV as Infrastructure of Learning
  4. Active Ingredients of Learning (AIL)
  5. A Learners’ View (ALV) of Learning in One Lesson
  6. Choices Frame an Infrastructure of Learning
  7. Classic Education: A Learners’ View (ALV) of Choices during Teaching and Learning
  8. Conditional Permission to Teach
  9. Cost to Learn /a/
  10. Costs to Teach and Learn
  11. Depictions of Learning in the Arts and Literature
  12. Detailed Contents
  13. Great Social Commission of Educators
  14. How Much Does It Cost to Learn /a/?
  15. Infrastructure of Learning
  16. Living in a Learners’ World
  17. Meet Ima Learner
  18. Principles of Learning
  19. Rationed Learning: “Yes, but …” Report Revisited
  20. Risk of Failure to Learn (FTL)
  21. Social Processes of Learning
  22. Supply Chains of Learning
  23. Triple-Helix of Learning (THL)
  24. Two Dots Learning (TDL)
  25. Who is a Learner?

Related Reading

  1. Abstract
  2. Articles by Titles
  3. Behind Classic Education: A Learners’ View (ALV) of Choices during Teaching and Learning
  4. Cost to Learn /a/: A 65 Percent Solution
  5. Frequently Asked Questions about ALV (FAQs)
  6. Guide to Blending What Teachers Do with Choices Learners Make
  7. Key Words of ALV
  8. New Era School Initiative (NESI) Interviews and Conversations
  9. Technical Scientific Literacy of Educators (TSLE)
  10. Unanswered Questions about Learning and Education

Last Edited: August 6, 2015