Formative Assessments or Formative Instruction

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Great article. In response to Jon S. Twing , the concept and practices for the term “formative assessment” have existed in psychology since the 1890s. They complement the process later termed “summative assessment.”

Formative assessment gains its definition in part by identifying what learners do to earn scores on standardized tests (summative assessments) and in classroom lessons.

In the 1960s, the term formative assessment evolved informally among educators and behavioral psychologists in university programs that developed standardized tests and prepared people to administer and interpret them. These faculty, and their grad students, adopted procedures used by earlier psychologists to describe what teachers can do with standardized test results. Psychometrists have included such descriptions in their reports since the earliest uses the Binet and Weschler intelligence scales.

The term “feedback loop” adopts an essential, historic evaluation process to a contemporary image and rhetoric.

And, yes, Mr. Twing, you appear to have benefited from a course sequence that included monitoring what learners do during lessons to earn their academic performances. Kudos to you and your teachers.

Formative Assessments or Formative Instruction

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Robert Heiny
Robert W. Heiny, Ph.D. is a retired professor, social scientist, and business partner with previous academic appointments as a public school classroom teacher, senior faculty, or senior research member, and administrator. Appointments included at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Peabody College and the Kennedy Center now of Vanderbilt University; and Brandeis University. Dr. Heiny also served as Director of the Montana Center on Disabilities. His peer reviewed contributions to education include publication in [I]The Encyclopedia of Education [/I](1971), and in professional journals and conferences. He served s an expert reviewer of proposals to USOE, and on a team that wrote plans for 12 state-wide and multistate special education and preschools programs. He currently writes user guides for educators and learners as well as columns for [I]TuxReports[/I].com.